Posted by: E (The Third Glance) | March 26, 2012

Handwriting, Written Communication, and Autism

Although I could read and spell at a very young age, I spent much of my youth being yelled at for my poor handwriting. My teachers and parents believed that I was rushing and not putting in enough effort. They claimed I was being sloppy and not performing to potential. My answers were always there, and they were (nearly) always correct. But the teachers couldn’t easily read them. Granted, I was bored to tears, and just wanted to finish the silly assignment so I could read about my special interests, or do anything that challenged me, but no, I wasn’t trying to be sloppy. My handwriting was just that bad, and the content of what I was writing, especially in compositions, was pretty disjointed and unreadable as well.

When I was first learning to write in kindergarten, we had those pieces of paper with the 3 lines – 2 horizontal solid lines, separated by a dotted line in the middle. This was so we could practice forming our letters in the right dimensions. I’ve always had trouble with visual art – I’ve never been able to make what I see in my head appear on the paper in front of me. The same holds true for writing letters. I would spend my class time carefully forming letters, tracing them, working with them, trying anything I could to make them form correctly. I was quite often nearly the last to have my penmanship checked off by the teacher. And to top it off, I knew my letters already, so I started teaching myself cursive too (since it was up on the wall, and I already knew what the print letters looked like).

When my school had standardized testing, we had to write essays, and we always had as much time as we needed to complete them. My teachers had told us that we should write the essays in cursive and try to make them look as neat as possible, because if the graders didn’t think we could write well, they wouldn’t grade our content well, either. One memorable test day, I spent 5 hours working on my essay. I was the last person finished. Why? Because after I had drafted my essay, I spent 4 more hours carefully copying it over, writing and rewriting the letters, using the best cursive I knew. I must have gone through an entire eraser that day. One of the big ones, not the silly little nubs on the back of the pencils. Anything, to try to make it readable. I got a copy of it back when I graduated high school. Let’s just say that those were 4 hours wasted. My brain moves far too fast for my handwriting to keep up.

My mother hated that I had bad handwriting. This was one of the things she yelled at me most often for. She believed that having good handwriting was a sign that you are cultured and smart. And having bad handwriting was a mark that you are useless, awful, and all-around stupid. She would tell me this on almost a daily basis. I think she thought it was motivational. And in a sense it was. As a little girl, I would do anything possible to please my mother. I have notebooks FULL of penmanship practice that I would fill up after school. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee… all the way to Zz, then numbers. And it would repeat, over and over and over again. Some pages were all A’s. some pages were alphabets. None of them were great handwriting. Despite hours upon hours of practicing, it was never very good. Some of those notebooks were from high school. Handwriting is something I still struggle with today. Ironically, my father also had terrible handwriting – as a consequence, he only writes with all upper-case letters.

But there’s another layer to my bad handwriting. I am severely right/left confused. I literally can not tell my right side from my left side. My verbal processing just can’t parse the words “left” and “right” and apply them to my body. I know the right side is where my watch is, but even then, I can’t translate the words “right” and “left” onto myself. I’ve developed tricks over the years, but it’s still a toss up. So when I was learning to write, I had trouble remembering which hand to hold the pencil in. In an attempt to help me become unconfused about my rights and my lefts, my teachers taught me to hold out my hands with my pointer fingers up and my thumbs out, and whichever made an “L”, was the left hand. Well, sorry, teachers, but if you flip your right hand around, THEY BOTH MAKE AN L! And if you flip your left hand around, neither makes an L. The test is flawed.

But when I was learning to write, my teachers were also attempting to teach me my left and my right sides. I never remembered which hand the pencil/crayon/marker/writing utensil was supposed to go in, so they taught me that the hand I used to write with was my right hand. This, of course, further confused my brain, because I used both hands to write with. And I was left-side dominant. But the teachers made the guess that I was probably like 90% of the population, and right-handed, so they would use that as a tool to help me learn left vs. right. And so, I learned to write right-handed. I am probably left-handed. I do everything else left-sided (including eat when my mother isn’t watching and intoning “left hand in your lap”), and I can even write left-handed. My lefty writing today is slower but neater than my righty writing. They are very distinctly different, and you’d never guess they were written by the same person. Neither will be winning me any penmanship awards.

So where am I today? I can write with both hands. Neither is terribly good, but both are usually legible. But thankfully, we live in the age of computers and typing. I can type at >100 words per minute, and everything I type is legible! Anyone can read it. Plus it fixes my spelling, too. I can type words that I don’t know how to spell, because they have a particular shape under my fingers. So while I acknowledge the need for legible handwriting (and I still take some of my notes handwritten, and it’s good to be able to scribble things out, but those are for me, not for other people), I am very thankful for the computer, as it has opened up a world of communication for me. I have read that poor handwriting (well, really poor fine and gross motor skills) are symptoms of Autism. Regardless of whether that is actually true or not, I certainly fit both criteria.

So what do I take from this? There’s almost always more than one “right” way to do something. If handwriting is causing trouble, try a keyboard. My ability to convey my thoughts and ideas in writing came after I learned to type. When I was learning to make letters, my thoughts weren’t on what words I wanted those letters to form – I was concentrating on making them legible. Take away that barrier, provide me with legible letters already, and my ability to form written words, sentences, and ideas grew exponentially. And after I had learned how to think and write using the computer, I became better at doing it by hand, too. My growth in this way reminds me of how some non-verbal or minimally verbal children begin to speak more with their own voices after they have begun to use a communication device – once you get past the challenge: forming words, you can get to the communication part. The ability is probably there, waiting to be nurtured, and if one way to express it isn’t working, try another, don’t just write it off. If you read writing samples from me 10 years ago, from middle school, you would NEVER guess that we are the same person. In my case, poor handwriting was a major barrier to my (written) communication abilities. That doesn’t mean it is for every young Autistic child, but I contend that trying multiple options for ultimately developing the desired skillset is very important. Is the goal for the person to write perfectly clearly with pen and paper, or is the goal for the person to be able to convey their thoughts and feelings and communicate through writing? I would like to think that it’s the latter.

Does anyone else share my experience of rotten handwriting? People used to tease me that I should be a doctor, since I already had the bad handwriting. I never understood why it would be good for doctors to have bad handwriting, since don’t people need to know what their diagnoses are? Ironically, I am going to be a doctor… just no, not THAT kind of doctor. I’m going to be the “Professor of <Science*>” kind of doctor.

*by <science> I mean of my academic field, which definitely falls under the umbrella of “science”.

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Responses

  1. I once had a student who, like you, really struggled with this. Some of his teachers weren’t even aware he had the correct answers it was so bad. It took until nearly high school for an OT to point out that his handwriting was unlikely to improve and to assign him a laptop. Crisis over. But not soon enough. His life would have been much easier if this had been figured out earlier.

    • Poor guy – but hopefully it did help down the road. 🙂 Thanks for commenting!

  2. My 4 year old son has Autism and he was assessed on Friday by his programme manager. She is convinced that he can read and will ammend his programme to accomodate this new development. He struggles to hold a pencil and makes a little fist when he hold it. Due to this lack of control over the pencil his writings are very poor. HOWEVER, we are currently on holiday at the beach and when he wrote his name in the sand with his little finger, he wrote it perfectly! I was told to not sweat the small stuff…he has a computer and an iPad, what he wants to say is more important than how it looks!

    • 🙂 And writing with your pointer finger in the sand is much easier than gripping a pencil. 🙂

  3. I actually have dysgraphia. I am a voracious reader as (I was even hyperlexic as a kid) and have very high tested verbal IQ. I am simply disabled when it comes to writing itself. Not only do I have poor hand writing and usually experience physical pain when I write, it’s gotten worse as I age. I also have coherency issues when I write similar to the coherency issues with dyslexia, but with writing and not reading. I will confuse words (like i will write “what” when I mean “want” and vice versa) and I’ll forget to write words, especially little words like prepositions and “to” before an infinitive verb) when writing long sentences, even though I think them or visualize them as I am writing.

    I type better than I write, but sometimes if I’m tired, I’ll type like someone who’s never used a keyboard before! I’ve had to learn to check my typing carefully. I also have issues with any repetitive movement with my hands, which has been a bit of a challenge as i am a musician. I hated practice drills on my instruments, and once I learned i had dysgraphia, I knew why!

    I suspect many autistics have dysgraphia but its symptoms just get conflated with autism in general rather than recognized as a disability in itself, or confused with dyslexia or simply not recognized for what it is. I work in spec ed and dysgraphia is hardly known among teachers and even diagnosticians.

    • That makes a lot of sense. I, too, was hyperlexic as a kid, and devoured books. I just couldn’t write myself. Thanks for leaving a comment! 🙂

      (I’m a pianist – I love typing, it’s the same sort of “hand-shapes” as making music… at least, that’s how my brain processes it)

  4. Thank you for writing this. My daughter is 8 and has autism and struggles so much with handwriting. My question to you is as a parent I struggle with knowing when to push and when not to push. What I mean is that in certain things, Emma (my daughter) is a kid that will test boundaries or will sometimes just rush through on things, but other times I believe it is like asking a person with no legs to run. This is not solely related to handwriting but to all subjects and areas of her life. I struggle because I never know which is the case. I want Emma to feel good about herself more than anything else. I don’t want her to feel she does not measure up. I homeschool because school basically was squashing her spirit. But I do not want to destroy that beautiful spirit either. Any thoughts would be appreciated. I think you blog is wonderful!

    • Thanks so much for your comment 🙂

      Unfortunately, as I don’t know your daughter at all, I can’t give specific advice – you know your daughter better than anyone. That being said, sometimes the best strategy is to change tactics somewhat. So for me, using a computer to type, actually in the long run helped to improve my handwriting. Pushing boundaries can be a good thing – when I was little, I didn’t know HOW to push boundaries, since rules were “set in stone” if it were, in my mind.

      Like I said in the post, there’s almost never only one right way to do things. If one thing isn’t working, get creative, and try another. Don’t give up on the original thing, but try another. Success by one method often leads to opening up of a new skillset that will lead to success in another. It’s like writers block – walk away from it for a while, do something else, and then come back to it later. You’ll almost always have something to add.

  5. I had terrible handwriting when I was younger, my teachers used to complain about it all of the time. My parents paid for private lessons for me, but it didn’t really help. I also remember my Nan making me spend an entire day practising writing because she said mine was illegible. I can now write quite tidly when I have to, but I tend to type everything.

    • Oof! Yeah, I know that feeling. Thanks for leaving a comment 🙂 Ironically, my mother’s handwriting is pretty dismal, too… but she believes that since its script, its perfect and can be read easily.

      When I need to, I can write neatly now – it just takes me forever! Typing is far preferred. The only thing I handwrite now is math equations, and that only sometimes. I really should learn LaTeX, because that would help in the “typing math” department.

  6. I loved this post. My son is in kindergarten, and has ASD. He knows all of his letters, the phonics, and most sight words. However, writing said letters and words is another story. I often wonder how he feels when his teacher/therapists/parents keep making him rewrite everything.

    He is also left-side dominant, and has issues with right and left. Writing and free-hand drawing will, I imagine, always be tough for him. I am so glad that we live in the age of technology, because I am certain that he will be able to write well using a computer. Thanks for an insight I had been looking for from someone with Autism.

    • Hi Lisa! Thanks for your great comment 🙂 Indeed, technology is and I’m sure will continue to be such a game-changer for many people with disabilities of all types. For me, I was made to write and re-write things so often, that it simply became a given. I would hand in an assignment, and the teacher would yell at me because it was sloppy. (I was also nearly always the first one done, so they assumed that it was that I was rushing. Not so.) So then I would be forced to rewrite it. And so I would try again, and often it took 3 or 4 tries. Very frustrating.

      And I don’t know if it would help your son at all or not, but I got better at Right vs. Left when I started playing piano in Kindergarten – I’m still, many years later, not very good at it, but I had muscle memory from the pieces I played, and the right and left hands are always doing different things. So all I would have to do is turn towards the orientation the piano was in my house (and don’t ask me why, but it meant I had to turn to face “north” – and I have a good internal compass, again no idea why), and pretend to place my hands on the piano. Then I’d know immediately which was my right and which was my left. This is still my preferred method of quickly figuring out which hand is which.

  7. I found this post to be so interesting. My son is in kindergarten and has ASD. Handwriting is probably one of his weakest areas. His fine motor ability can’t keep up with his mind. I know he, too, is left dominant, but uses both hands because, like you, I don’t think his brain differentiates right from left. We are trying to work on that…I am sure he’ll come up with some tricks to remind himself as he matures.

    Thanks for the insight!

  8. Thanks for another great post E! I’m happy that our daughter Emma is doing well with both her handwriting and typing, though they are still hard for her. I wouldn’t say enjoys either yet, but she does enjoy her learning program now. A year ago she wasn’t able to do any form of writing or typing so we are delighted she is expanding her outlets for expressing herself. I’ll let you know when she’s typing 100 words a minute! I’m still hen-pecking!

  9. Hi E. Love this post. I was just reading Richard’s comment above (did you notice his new bad boy photograph?) But I digress – Emma types very fast with her two index fingers. I was thinking of getting her started on the Mavis Beacon kids typing program so she could begin practicing with all her fingers. Did you teach yourself to type with all fingers? And if so, did you use a specific typing program? I think our Emma would probably do really well if I could find a good one.

  10. Richard and Ariane, I figured I would respond to you both here…
    I did not teach myself to type, exactly. I started keyboarding lessons in public school in 4th grade – we had these ANCIENT mac computers (ok, Ancient to me – the ones with a tiny black/white/greenish screen, and everything is done in text format – no mice) – the program was super simple and very straightforward. It showed you where your fingers went on the keys, then had you type. I got very very good at it. For one thing, it was a systematic way of teaching a new skill. For another, I liked the repetitive nature of it. (I’m serious!). I continued to have keyboarding lessons in 5th grade (a slightly newer program, on a much newer computer). In 6th grade, I had a “keyboarding class” – that was when I got really really good. My record during that time was 127 words per minute, kept up for 2 full minutes with 3 errors total.

    My biggest issue with “learn-to-type” programs available now, is that they’re all more about the bells and whistles (and loud, startling, visually annoying animations), than they are about the typing skill. While it’s cute to have some animated character dance every time you type 30 characters, it’s also just rather frustrating – the programs have far less repetition, which is what helped me the most, and far more “entertainment”. I haven’t yet found a program that is more “back to basics” with lots of repeated typing of letters and words, without all the useless extras. Let me know if you DO find one!

    I should also say that my written communication skills didn’t develop overnight when I learned to type. Typing was simply successfully opening the latch on the toolbox. I still had to figure out how to use what was inside.

    Thanks for the comments 🙂

    • That’s a good point. I’ll have to take another look at the one I have. My (NT) son loves it, but it might be distracting for Emma. I’ll let you know if I find one that is more straight forward.

  11. Although much of the focus with dysgraphia is on handwriting, it’s good for parents and teachers to keep math in mind as well. My son has dyspraxia, which can make multistep processes challenging, and the associated dysgraphia further gums up the works.

    For example, long division was a nightmare. Even though my son eventually learned to navigate the problems, his columns of numbers were typically all askew and his numbers were often illegible even to him. Plus he’d just fire through things so rapidly—your description of your brain outpacing your hand’s ability to keep up sounds very familiar!

    Now that he’s in middle school and doing geometry and so forth, he can use a calculator. He’s also gotten pretty good at mental math. Things go a lot more smoothly when he can just focus on the problem at hand.

    • Thanks for the comment, Figment! (I love the username – is it after the “Figment” dragon? I love that character!!)

      And yes, that sounds familiar. I used graph paper throughout much of my grade school days, because I could put one number in each square, and my columns would be forced to be straight. I always found math homework where I had to show all my work incredibly tedious. I am VERY good at mental math (something my family used to do at the dinner table), so I really didn’t feel the need to write out all of the “work” that I wasn’t doing. Plus it was so much work to write!

  12. My son Colors over his letters to darken them and he writes sloppy. The occupational therapist has given him finger grips and different things to help him hold the pencils but I do not have big plans for my son to write perfectly and I know the odds are against him. I learned a few months ago that the best thing to do for a child who has bad handwriting that will never improve is to give him a different writing modality. So I asked the IEP teachers for my son if it is ok for him to email some homework to his teacher if I see it is neccesary and they agreed that it was a good idea. So Little Man is learning to type and he loves it! Here are some things I notice about Little Man when he typed out his homework. 1. He was able to focus on the content of what he was writing instead of focusing on the monotonous task of handwriting. 2. He was enthusiastic!!!!! 3. He didn’t care how long the typing process took because it was less of a chore and it was fun to him to “Play” on the computer. 4. It was a positive homework experience!!!

    • Hi! Thanks for all your comments 🙂 And yes, exactly the same thing for me – typing allowed me to focus on content rather than method. I’m glad it works for Little Man too. 🙂

  13. Nice post & comment discussion. Would anyone be willing to share about help from an occupational therapist?

  14. My hand writing has never been the best & while M. can write neatly at times, she is also able to write with both hands equally well.

  15. I have similar issues with left/right handedness (see my blog), I just found it funny to read back a remark that I often made as a professor: “Yep, my handwriting is poor, but alas, that is because I’m a doctor.”

  16. I am a 49-year-old Aspie who had horribly dysfunctional handwriting till age 24 when I self-remediated by (mostly) reading everything available on handwriting tat had been published during (LITERALLY) the last 500 years, throwing away the parts that didn’t work for me, and refining the rest. Now I work professionally as a handwriting instructor/remediator/curriculum consultant for children and adults with and without disabilities. As far as I can find out, I am the only handwriting consultant/etc. who herself has Asperger’s —(I also have some other disabilities affecting handwriting) … making me the one who sees these issues and solutions from the inside.

    • Wow! That’s quite a reading list! Thanks for stopping by and leaving a comment. 🙂 What were some things that helped you the most?

      • At long last, I came back here and noted your question!

        Most helpful —

        • deciding to join ONLY the most easily-joined letter-combos (such as “on / an”) and NEVER the difficult ones that involve multiple curves (such as “sc / pa / gh / qu”)

        • deciding to use ONLY print-like letter-shapes wherever a letter’s cursive and print-style forms disagree (“b, f, k, r, s, z” and capitals — as well as anything with loops)

        • using the pen that I can most stably write with (Lamy Safari fountain pen with 1.5mm Italic nib)

        • studying/practicing Italic handwriting, and deciding that this would be my writing style.

  17. Hm. My handwriting has always been okay – not the greatest in the world (that’s my dad’s, but I think he trained himself), but not as bad as my mom’s, either (we used to joke that we could all read doctors’ handwriting because we learned to read Mom’s). In fact, in Gr. 3, I trained myself to write (cursively) in miniscule letters so that I could have written conversations with my AM teacher (that year we had one teacher in the morning and another in the afternoon, because the afternoon teacher didn’t want to teach full days). I don’t remember the details of the conversations we had, but I remember enjoying them intensely. (Mme. Manette rather liked me. Mme. Talbot – our afternoon teacher – was somewhat stricter, and I could never determine whether she liked me or not.)

    I was lucky when it came to computers; my dad was / is a computer programmer, and built our first personal computer (an Apple II copy that we called “The Fruit Cocktail”) when I was about 6 – so 1984-ish. I learned Basic, Pascal, and Logo on that computer. (It was also command-line based.) The first computer that was *mine* was when Dad gave me a Windows 3.1 laptop (HP, I think) that he had gotten from work, in 1990, for me to take to the Canadian Young Authors’ Camp with me. (I then went back to a Mac as soon as I could, but I’ve had laptops ever since.) (And yeah, even typing can’t always catch up with my thoughts, which can be an issue when I’m writing my stories, and my brain is a sentence or two ahead of where my typing is….)

    My main difficulty with manual dexterity was catching balls. Or, really, *anything* thrown. I was terrible at most team sports because of it. I mean, even if by chance I *did* catch the ball, or the Frisbee, or the scrunched-up paper, or the pen… I’d fumble it. I think it’s a combination of hand-eye co-ordination issues and proprioceptive sensory issues (for those who don’t recognize the term, the “proprioceptive” sensory system involves feedback from nerves, muscles and tendons that tells your brain *where* the different parts of your body are and how they’re moving). I was also bad at getting soccer balls with my feet – either catching them, or kicking them. That summer my younger sister and I played soccer was *miserable* for me. (I can’t remember whether I wanted to play soccer, or my mom suggested it as an activity that I might try… but at the end of the summer, I informed her that I would *not* be doing that again. Mom was great about that; she tended to insist that we *try* activities, but if we really didn’t want to do it, especially after we *had* tried, she wouldn’t insist.)

    About math and such – I, too, have been able to do mental math since I was a kid. It was easy. You just added the numbers up, subtracted them, multiplied them, or divided them. Why did you need to write any of that down? All the textbooks were looking for – all the teachers were really looking for – was the answer, as far as I was concerned, in elementary school. So I didn’t.

    It was a nuisance when I got into Gr. 7/8 (we did our first three years of high school in 2 years, at my school) and had to write them out or we wouldn’t get the mark. It was only later in the year, once we started getting into algebra, that I could see there was a *reason* for it. Once I saw there was actually a reason, I stopped dragging my feet on the issue – but I still used to solve the problems by the time I had actually written the problem (not the first part of the solution, even) out.

    Just a note about Mavis Beacon and programs like that…. I type pretty much as fast as I could touch-typing, but I don’t touch-type, not really. Not the typing that requires you to hold your fingers ready over the keyboard, the way they teach touch-typing in schools. I learned by looking down at the keyboard and moving my fingers to the keys that were appropriate. Now I can quite often type without looking at the keyboard – for the same reason touch-typers can – because I know where the keys are. But I could never learn the way they tried to teach me. *shrugs*

    😉 tagAught

  18. I maybe an occupational therapist and sometimes I worked with kids on their handwriting back when I was a fieldwork student, BUT (hence I put it in all caps), my handwriting is just a bit better illegible in real time speed. So, I hear you. I think if you were an elementary school now, you may have received OT for handwriting in school (though they don’t do this kind of thing for teens and adults with autism). Had your handwriting skills not improve, you would have been eligible to receive some sort of accommodation for it.

    That said, you should tell your mom about doctors’ handwritings. I couldn’t even figure out what some of them are writing! (Thank god more and more people are now using electronic medical records.) So, this kind of thing become less common.

  19. Your statement could, almost word for word, have been mine. Among other things, I have Asperger’s (one form of autism), which wasn’t officially diagnosed until 12 years ago: I was 38 at the time … and I had been a VERY seriously dysfunctional handwriter until age 24 when (after all else had failed) I set out to self-remediate for handwriting by examining literally EVERYthing findable that had been written on the subject for, oh, the past half-millennium (that being about how long there have been handwriting-textbooks published) and finding out which parts of the teachings actually worked or didn’t work (for me, at any rate) — with the notion of using what worked AND (just as important) discarding what didn’t. This dive into “handwriting heresy” (picking and choosing, to get what actually _worked_) shocked my parents (teachers of English, who’d never doubted the alleged Essential Rightness of conventional cursive), but within a few weeks I had undeniably _legible_ handwriting … within a few months, it became undeniably legible and _rapid_ handwriting … within a year, my dad was begging me for lessons and then urging me to set up a business teaching doctors and other folks who could use a hand(writing).

    That was a quarter-century ago; the resulting business has been on the Internet longer than Google. From all I can find, I am the _only_ handwriting professional who has _grown_up_ with the problems that I help with.

    Kate Gladstone — Handwriting Repair/Handwriting That Works

  20. I’ve been reading this blog since last night when I found it. Are you secretly me?

    Seriously, most of the stuff you’ve written about so far has happened to me. Bad handwriting, being a little professor, etc. It’s creepy how similar we are.

    I was assessed for something when I was a kid, but my parents told me the child psych felt I was normal, but I don’t trust them any farther than I can throw them because they’ve a long history of doing what’s best for them and what makes them look good, rather than what’s actually needed.

    On handwriting: My four-year-old niece has better handwriting than I do. No joke. It’s pretty bad.

    • hi 🙂 I don’t know, are you secretly me? 😉 I am glad you’ve found this blog – definitely stick around if you want 🙂 I definitely know how that “bad handwriting” thing feels… I just honestly can’t write well. Thank goodness for computers.

  21. Have you written about writing letters and numbers in the opposite direction? My 5 yr old, hyperlexic, sounds and knows all letters – from A-Z; from Z-A (can say and write them), knows the difference between capital and minuscule, exclamation and question mark… but when it comes to writing some of the letters (E, D, S, R, P, #3) – they are written in the opposite direction. What tips/suggestions do you have about this? Or who do you recommend I speak to? I know kids 8, 12, 13 and this was never corrected. Don’t want that to happen to my child… 2.5 yrs ago diagnosed with moderate to severe autism, now rediagnosed as high functioning autism (we’ve done biomedica treatment, GFCFLFSF dietl, homeopathy, very little therapies so far). Thanks in advance for your insight… BTW… so refreshing to read about your experiences, so real and the confirmation the school system has no clue!! My opinion…


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